Table Of Contents

Physics For Architects SECOND EDITION

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION VII
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION VIII
1. MATHEMATICAL REVIEW 1
1.1 ALGEBRA 1
1.1.1 Equations and formulas 1
1.1.2 Understanding formulas 4
PROBLEMS 6
1.2 GEOMETRY 8
1.2.1 Length, area, volume 8
1.2.2 Angles 10
PROBLEMS 11
1.3 TRIGONOMETRY 13
1.3.1 The trigonometric functions of acute angles 13
1.3.2 Trigonometric functions of any angle 15
1.3.3 The inverse trigonometric functions 17
1.3.4 Trigonometry in 3-D 18
PROBLEMS 18
1.4 UNITS 20
1.4.1 Conversion of units 21
1.4.2 Units and formulas 22
PROBLEMS 23
2. MOTION IN ONE DIMENSION 24
2.1 COORDINATE SYSTEMS AND THE REAL WORLD 24
2.2 KINEMATICS IN ONE DIMENSION. 25
2.2.1 Position, distance, and displacement in 1-D 25
2.2.2 Vectors in 1-D 27
2.2.3 Describing motion in 1-D 28
2.2.4 Speed and velocity in 1-D 29
Solving numerical physics problems 31
2.2.5 Acceleration in 1-D 32
2.2.6 Acceleration of free fall (g) 34
2.3 NEWTON’S LAWS IN 1-D 36
2.3.1 The Law of Inertia (Newton’s First Law) 36
2.3.2 Newton’s Second Law 37
2.3.3 Adding forces in 1-D 40
2.3.4 Newton’s Third Law 41
2.4 FORCES 42
2.4.1 The force of gravity on Earth 42
The pound and the kilogram 44
2.4.2 The Universal Force of Gravity 44
2.4.3 Elastic forces 45
2.4.4 Normal forces 46
2.4.5 Friction forces 47
2.5 STATICS IN ONE DIMENSION 49
2.6 DYNAMICS IN ONE DIMENSION 51
2.6.1 Net force=0 52
2.6.2 Net force=constant (non-zero) 52
2.6.3 Oscillations 54
Harmonic motion 54
Resonance 58
PROBLEMS 60
3. FROM 1 TO 2 AND 3 DIMENSIONS 67
3.1 REPRESENTING VECTORS 67
3.1.1 Representing displacement vectors 67
3.1.2 Representing any vector 68
3.1.3 Adding vectors graphically 69
3.1.4 Adding vectors by formulas 71
3.2 FORCE AND MOTION IN 2-D AND 3-D 74
3.2.1 Two dimensions 74
3.2.2 Three dimensions 75
3.2.3 Translation and rotation 75
3.2.4 Torques 76
PROBLEMS 81
4. STATICS 85
4.1 CONDITIONS FOR STATIC EQUILIBRIUM 85
4.2 THE CENTER OF GRAVITY (C.O.G) 86
4.2.1 Properties of the Center of Gravity. 86
4.2.2 Calculating the center of gravity. 88
4.3 STATICS OF BASIC STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 91
4.3.1 Three co-planar forces acting on a point. 91
4.3.2 A beam and posts 93
4.3.3 A ladder against a wall 97
4.3.4 Triangular arch 100
Discussion 103
4.3.5 From arches to domes 104
4.3.6 Buttressing 105
4.3.7 Multi-member structures. 109
Example 1: Trusses 109
Example 2: Suspension Bridges 111
Example 3 The Catenary and Stone Arches. 113
4.3.8 Considering elasticity 122
4.4 STRESS AND STRAIN 124
4.4.1 Types of deformations 124
4.4.2 The elastic moduli 126
4.4.3 Controlling deformations in structures 129
4.5 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE 131
PROBLEMS 133
5. LATERAL FORCES 142
5.1 WIND EFFECTS 142
5.1.1 Wind flow 142
5.1.2 Wind forces. 143
Drag forces 143
Lift forces 144
5.2 EARTHQUAKES 147
5.2.1 Plate tectonics 147
5.2.2 Interaction of earthquakes with structures 150
5.2.3 Rigid coupling and rigid main structure 153
5.2.4 Effects of structure’s flexibility 153
5.2.5 Toppling of structures 159
5.3 LATERAL EFFECTS OF HYDROSTATIC FORCES 160
5.4 COMMENTS ON LATERAL FORCES 162
PROBLEMS 163
6. WORK, ENERGY, POWER, MOMENTUM 167
6.1 WORK AND KINETIC ENERGY 167
6.2 WORK AND GRAVITY 170
6.3 DISSIPATED ENERGY 172
6.4 CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 173
6.4.1 Applications of Conservation of Energy 175
6.5 POWER 178
6.6 CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM 181
PROBLEMS 183
7. HEAT AND THERMODYNAMICS 186
7.1 TEMPERATURE 186
7.2 EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION 187
7.2.1 Solids and liquids 187
The Water Anomaly 190
7.2.2 Gasses 191
7.3 HEAT 193
7.3.1 What is heat? 193
7.3.2 The First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics 194
7.3.3 Units of Heat 195
7.3.4 Heat, Temperature, and Matter 196
7.3.5 Exchange of heat in closed systems 199
7.3.6 Heating and cooling of air 200
7.3.7 Sensible heat, latent heat, and enthalpy 201
7.3.8 Heat Comfort (Psychrometry) 202
Example: The limits of evaporative cooling of air 204
7.4 HEAT TRANSFER 204
7.4.1 Heat conduction 205
R-number, U-value, and thermal resistance 205
Thermal resistors in series 210
Thermal resistors in parallel 212
Basement walls and floor slabs 214
7.4.2 Heat convection. 215
7.4.3 Heat radiation 216
7.4.4 The greenhouse effect 219
7.4.5 Heating and cooling of buildings 220
PROBLEMS 222
8. ELECTRICITY 227
8.1 ELECTRIC CHARGES AND ELECTROSTATIC FORCE 227
8.2 ELECTRIC CURRENTS 230
8.2.1 Electric currents and their utilization 230
8.2.2 Generating electric currents 232
8.2.3 Electric energy and power 234
8.2.4 Resistance and resistivity 236
8.2.5 Electric power sources 237
DC Current 237
AC Sources 239
8.2.6 Generation and manipulation of AC 240
8.2.7 Wiring inside the house 244
8.2.8 Electrical safety 248
PROBLEMS 250
9. OPTICS 253
9.1 THE NATURE OF LIGHT 253
9.1.1 Particles or waves? 253
Young’s double slit experiment 255
The photoelectric effect 256
A dilemma and its solution 257
The energy of a light-beam 257
9.1.2 Generation and annihilation of light 258
9.2 THE PERCEPTION OF COLOR 260
9.2.1 Photon-eye-brain interactions 260
9.2.2 Perceiving reflected light 263
9.2.3 Eye accommodation and glare 263
9.2.4 The ‘Temperature’ of color. 264
9.3 PHOTOMETRY 265
9.3.1 Radiant power and luminous flux 265
9.3.2 Illuminance and luminance intensity 267
Illuminating by a parallel beam. 267
Illumination by a point source 269
Luminance 272
Long line and other sources 272
Luminous efficacy and quantity of light 273
9.4 DAYLIGHT 274
9.4.1 Sunlight 274
9.4.2 Light and the atmosphere 275
9.5 LIGHT IN VARIOUS MEDIUMS. 276
9.5.1 Types of mediums 276
9.5.2 Attenuation 276
9.5.3 Reflection 277
9.5.4 Refraction of light 280
The index of refraction 280
The Law of Refraction 281
9.5.5 Lighting control 284
PROBLEMS 286
10. ACOUSTICS 289
10.1 PROPAGATION OF SOUND 289
10.2 SOUND WAVES 291
10.2.1 Distortion and manipulation of sound waves 293
10.3 SOUND INTENSITY 294
10.3.1 Sound loudness 296
10.3.2 The log(x) function (review) 297
10.3.3 The decibel scale 298
The decibel scale and common intuition 300
10.4 REFLECTION, ABSORPTION, REFRACTION, AND TRANSMISSION 302
10.4.1 Echoes and reflection of sound 302
10.4.2 Tracing reflected sound 304
10.4.3 Reverberations 309
10.4.4 Transmission and attenuation of sound 312
Paths of transmitted sound 314
10. 5 INTERFERENCE 315
10.5.1 Interference of waves 315
10.5.2 Un-ringing a bell 317
10.5.3 Standing waves and resonance 318
10.6 DIFFRACTION OF SOUND 321
10.6.1 Huygens’ Principle 321
10.6.2 The diffraction process 322
Diffraction in a double slit 323
10.6.3 Diffraction in architectural contexts 325
Diffraction and Reflection 325
Diffraction and Absorption 325
Diffusion by diffraction 328
Sound barriers for highways 328
10.7 CASE STUDY: THE MUSIC CENTER AT STRATHMORE 331
PROBLEMS 340
CONVERSION FACTORS 345
SOLUTIONS OF SELECTED PROBLEMS 346
CREDITS 350
INDEX 351